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ISO 3166-1 国家代码表

  • Standards
  • ISO 3166 – Country codes
  • ISO 3166-1 decoding table

ISO 3166-1 decoding table

Last updated:  2012-08-02

 

This decoding table provides the user of ISO 3166-1 with an easy access to the definition  of all 676 code elements available in the alpha-2 code of ISO’s country code standard.

The  content of this document is taken from two sources: The official code list of ISO 3166-1 and the list  of reserved ISO 3166-1 code elements which contains information on code allocations which are not officially  part of ISO 3166-1 (see “Reserved code elements”). The reserved code elements  have different statuses with regard to restrictions on use within ISO’s country code system. Some may  be used – others must not be used.

These statuses – and their approximate meanings  for the user of ISO 3166-1 – are described and colour-coded in Table 1. Tables 2 gives a colour coded,  clickable matrix of all ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code elements which is linked to Table 3 which gives the  definition of the code element.

For more detailed information please refer  to the section on “Reserved code elements” on our Website.

Contact the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency

The  ISO 3166/MA  should be contacted through its secretariat. Please use the following address:

ISO  3166 Maintenance Agency c/o International Organization for Standardization Case  postale 56 CH-1211 Genève 20

Telephone: +41 22 749 02 22 Telefax:  +41 22 749 01 55 E-mail: mbinfo@iso.org Web: www.iso.org/iso/country_codes

 

Color
Status of code element What it means
Officially assigned code element Code element may be used without restriction
User-assigned code element Code element may be used without restriction
Exceptionally reserved code element Code element may be used but restrictions may apply
Transitionally reserved code element Code element deleted from ISO 3166-1; stop using ASAP
Indeterminately reserved code element Code element must not be used in ISO 3166-1
Code elements not used at present stage [A] Code element must not be used in ISO 3166-1
Un-assigned code elements Code element free for assignment (by ISO 3166/MA only!)
AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ
BA BB BC BD BE BF BG BH BI BJ BK BL BM BN BO BP BQ BR BS BT BU BV BW BX BY BZ
CA CB CC CE CD CF CG CH CI CJ CK CL CM CN CO CP CQ CR CS CT CU CV CW CX CY CZ
DA DB DC DD DE DF DG DH DI DJ DK DL DM DN DO DP DQ DR DS DT DU DV DW DX DY DZ
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
FA FB FC FD FE FF FG FH FI FJ FK FL FM FN FO FP FQ FR FS FT FU FV FW FX FY FZ
GA GB GC GD GE GF GG GH GI GJ GK GL GM GN GO GP GQ GR GS GT GU GV GW GX GY GZ
HA HB HC HD HE HF HG HH HI HJ HK HL HM HN HO HP HQ HR HS HT HU HV HW HX HY HZ
IA IB IC ID IE IF IG IH II IJ IK IL IM IN IO IP IQ IR IS IT IU IV IW IX IY IZ
JA JB JC JD JE JF JG JH JI JJ JK JL JM JN JO JP JQ JR JS JT JU JV JW JX JY JZ
KA KB KC KD KE KF KG KH KI KJ KK KL KM KN KO KP KQ KR KS KT KU KV KW KX KY KZ
LA LB LC LD LE LF LG LH LI LJ LK LL LM LN LO LP LQ LR LS LT LU LV LW LX LY LZ
MA MB MC MD ME MF MG MH MI MJ MK ML MM MN MO MP MQ MR MS MT MU MV MW MX MY MZ
NA NB NC ND NE NF NG NH NI NJ NK NL NM NN NO NP NQ NR NS NT NU NV NW NX NY NZ
OA OB OC OD OE OF OG OH OI OJ OK OL OM ON OO OP OQ OR OS OT OU OV OW OX OY OZ
PA PB PC PD PE PF PG PH PI PJ PK PL PM PN PO PP PQ PR PS PT PU PV PW PX PY PZ
QA QB QC QD QE QF QG QH QI QJ QK QL QM QN QO QP QQ QR QS QT QU QV QW QX QY QZ
RA RB RC RD RE RF RG RH RI RJ RK RL RM RN RO RP RQ RR RS RT RU RV RW RX RY RZ
SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SI SJ SK SL SM SN SO SP SQ SR SS ST SU SV SW SX SY SZ
TA TB TC TD TE TF TG TH TI TJ TK TL TM TN TO TP TQ TR TS TT TU TV TW TX TY TZ
UA UB UC UD UE UF UG UH UI UJ UK UL UM UN UO UP UQ UR US UT UU UV UW UX UY UZ
VA VB VC VD VE VF VG VH VI VJ VK VL VM VN VO VP VQ VR VS VT VU VV VW VX VY VZ
WA WB WC WD WE WF WG WH WI WJ WK WL WM WN WO WP WQ WR WS WT WU WV WW WX WY WZ
XA XB XC XD XE XF XG XH XI XJ XK XL XM XN XO XP XQ XR XS XT XU XV XW XX XY XZ
YA YB YC YD YE YF YG YH YI YJ YK YL YM YN YO YP YQ YR YS YT YU YV YW YX YY YZ
ZA ZB ZC ZD ZE ZF ZG ZH ZI ZJ ZK ZL ZM ZN ZO ZP ZQ ZR ZS ZT ZU ZV ZW ZX ZY ZZ
Code Name Remark Status
AA user-assigned
AC Ascension Island [B] Requested by Universal Postal Union (UPU) exceptionally reserved
AD ANDORRA officially assigned
AE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES officially assigned
AF AFGHANISTAN officially assigned
AG ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA officially assigned
AI ANGUILLA officially assigned
AL ALBANIA officially assigned
AM ARMENIA officially assigned
AN Netherlands Antilles 2011-12 to 2061-12 transitionally reserved
AO ANGOLA officially assigned
AP African Regional Industrial Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
AQ ANTARCTICA officially assigned
AR ARGENTINA officially assigned
AS AMERICAN SAMOA officially assigned
AT AUSTRIA officially assigned
AU AUSTRALIA officially assigned
AW ARUBA officially assigned
AX ÅLAND ISLANDS officially assigned
AZ AZERBAIJAN officially assigned
BA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA officially assigned
BB BARBADOS officially assigned
BD BANGLADESH officially assigned
BE BELGIUM officially assigned
BF BURKINA FASO officially assigned
BG BULGARIA officially assigned
BH BAHRAIN officially assigned
BI BURUNDI officially assigned
BJ BENIN officially assigned
BL SAINT BARTHÉLEMY officially assigned
BM BERMUDA officially assigned
BN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM officially assigned
BO BOLIVIA, PLURINATIONAL STATE OF officially assigned
BQ BONAIRE, SINT EUSTATIUS AND SABA officially assigned
BR BRAZIL officially assigned
BS BAHAMAS officially assigned
BT BHUTAN officially assigned
BU Burma 1989-12 to 2039-12 transitionally reserved
BV BOUVET ISLAND officially assigned
BW BOTSWANA officially assigned
BX Benelux Trademarks and Designs Office [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
BY BELARUS officially assigned
BZ BELIZE officially assigned
CA CANADA officially assigned
CC COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS officially assigned
CD CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE officially assigned
CF CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
CG CONGO officially assigned
CH SWITZERLAND officially assigned
CI CÔTE D’IVOIRE officially assigned
CK COOK ISLANDS officially assigned
CL CHILE officially assigned
CM CAMEROON officially assigned
CN CHINA officially assigned
CO COLOMBIA officially assigned
CP Clipperton Island [C] Requested by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) exceptionally reserved
CR COSTA RICA officially assigned
CS SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO 2006-09 to 2056-09 transitionally reserved
CU CUBA officially assigned
CV CAPE VERDE officially assigned
CW CURAÇAO officially assigned
CX CHRISTMAS ISLAND officially assigned
CY CYPRUS officially assigned
CZ CZECH REPUBLIC officially assigned
DE GERMANY officially assigned
DG Diego Garcia [C] Requested by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) exceptionally reserved
DJ DJIBOUTI officially assigned
DK DENMARK officially assigned
DM DOMINICA officially assigned
DO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
DY Benin [D] Requested by Secretary-General of UN for Road Traffic Conventions R49 and R68 indeterminately reserved
DZ ALGERIA officially assigned
EA Ceuta, Melilla [E] Requested by World Customs Organization (WCO) exceptionally reserved
EC ECUADOR officially assigned
EE ESTONIA officially assigned
EF Union of Countries under the European Community Patent Convention [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EG EGYPT officially assigned
EH WESTERN SAHARA officially assigned
EM European Trademark Office [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EP European Patent Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
ER ERITREA officially assigned
ES SPAIN officially assigned
ET ETHIOPIA officially assigned
EU European Union Requested by ISO 4217/MA (March 1998) for ISO 6166 “Securities – International securities identification numbering system (ISIN)”. In August 1999, extension of scope to any application needing to represent the name European Union. exceptionally reserved
EV Eurasian Patent Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EW Estonia [D] indeterminately reserved
FI FINLAND officially assigned
FJ FIJI officially assigned
FK FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS) officially assigned
FL Liechtenstein [D] indeterminately reserved
FM MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF officially assigned
FO FAROE ISLANDS officially assigned
FR FRANCE officially assigned
FX France, Metropolitan Requested by France exceptionally reserved
GA GABON officially assigned
GB UNITED KINGDOM officially assigned
GC Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
GD GRENADA officially assigned
GE GEORGIA officially assigned
GF FRENCH GUIANA officially assigned
GG GUERNSEY officially assigned
GH GHANA officially assigned
GI GIBRALTAR officially assigned
GL GREENLAND officially assigned
GM GAMBIA officially assigned
GN GUINEA officially assigned
GP GUADELOUPE officially assigned
GQ EQUATORIAL GUINEA officially assigned
GR GREECE officially assigned
GS SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS officially assigned
GT GUATEMALA officially assigned
GU GUAM officially assigned
GW GUINEA-BISSAU officially assigned
GY GUYANA officially assigned
HK HONG KONG officially assigned
HM HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS officially assigned
HN HONDURAS officially assigned
HR CROATIA officially assigned
HT HAITI officially assigned
HU HUNGARY officially assigned
IB International Bureau of WIPO [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
IC Canary Islands [E] Requested by World Customs Organization (WCO) exceptionally reserved
ID INDONESIA officially assigned
IE IRELAND officially assigned
IL ISRAEL officially assigned
IM ISLE OF MAN officially assigned
IN INDIA officially assigned
IO BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY officially assigned
IQ IRAQ officially assigned
IR IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
IS ICELAND officially assigned
IT ITALY officially assigned
JA Jamaica [F] Requested by Secretary-General of UN for Road Traffic Conventions indeterminately reserved
JE JERSEY officially assigned
JM JAMAICA officially assigned
JO JORDAN officially assigned
JP JAPAN officially assigned
KE KENYA officially assigned
KG KYRGYZSTAN officially assigned
KH CAMBODIA officially assigned
KI KIRIBATI officially assigned
KM COMOROS officially assigned
KN SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS officially assigned
KP KOREA, DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
KR KOREA, REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
KW KUWAIT officially assigned
KY CAYMAN ISLANDS officially assigned
KZ KAZAKHSTAN officially assigned
LA LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC officially assigned
LB LEBANON officially assigned
LC SAINT LUCIA officially assigned
LF Libya Fezzan [D] indeterminately reserved
LI LIECHTENSTEIN officially assigned
LK SRI LANKA officially assigned
LR LIBERIA officially assigned
LS LESOTHO officially assigned
LT LITHUANIA officially assigned
LU LUXEMBOURG officially assigned
LV LATVIA officially assigned
LY LIBYA officially assigned
MA MOROCCO officially assigned
MC MONACO officially assigned
MD MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
ME MONTENEGRO officially assigned
MF SAINT MARTIN (FRENCH PART) officially assigned
MG MADAGASCAR officially assigned
MH MARSHALL ISLANDS officially assigned
MK MACEDONIA, THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
ML MALI officially assigned
MM MYANMAR officially assigned
MN MONGOLIA officially assigned
MO MACAO officially assigned
MP NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS officially assigned
MQ MARTINIQUE officially assigned
MR MAURITANIA officially assigned
MS MONTSERRAT officially assigned
MT MALTA officially assigned
MU MAURITIUS officially assigned
MV MALDIVES officially assigned
MW MALAWI officially assigned
MX MEXICO officially assigned
MY MALAYSIA officially assigned
MZ MOZAMBIQUE officially assigned
NA NAMIBIA officially assigned
NC NEW CALEDONIA officially assigned
NE NIGER officially assigned
NF NORFOLK ISLAND officially assigned
NG NIGERIA officially assigned
NI NICARAGUA officially assigned
NL NETHERLANDS Includes: the islands Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba officially assigned
NO NORWAY officially assigned
NP NEPAL officially assigned
NR NAURU officially assigned
NT Neutral Zone 1993-07 to 2043-07 transitionally reserved
NU NIUE officially assigned
NZ NEW ZEALAND officially assigned
OA African Intellectual Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
OM OMAN officially assigned
PA PANAMA officially assigned
PE PERU officially assigned
PF FRENCH POLYNESIA officially assigned
PG PAPUA NEW GUINEA officially assigned
PH PHILIPPINES officially assigned
PI Philippines [F] indeterminately reserved
PK PAKISTAN officially assigned
PL POLAND officially assigned
PM SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON officially assigned
PN PITCAIRN officially assigned
PR PUERTO RICO officially assigned
PS PALESTINIAN TERRITORY, OCCUPIED officially assigned
PT PORTUGAL officially assigned
PW PALAU officially assigned
PY PARAGUAY officially assigned
QA QATAR officially assigned
QM user-assigned
QN user-assigned
QO user-assigned
QP user-assigned
QQ user-assigned
QR user-assigned
QS user-assigned
QT user-assigned
QU user-assigned
QV user-assigned
QW user-assigned
QX user-assigned
QY user-assigned
QZ user-assigned
RA Argentina [F] indeterminately reserved
RB Bolivia [cf. Botswana: identical code element] [D] indeterminately reserved
RC China [F] indeterminately reserved
RE RÉUNION officially assigned
RH Haiti [D] indeterminately reserved
RI Indonesia [F] indeterminately reserved
RL Lebanon [F] indeterminately reserved
RM Madagascar [F] indeterminately reserved
RN Niger [G] indeterminately reserved
RO ROMANIA officially assigned
RP Philippines [G] indeterminately reserved
RS SERBIA officially assigned
RU RUSSIAN FEDERATION officially assigned
RW RWANDA officially assigned
SA SAUDI ARABIA officially assigned
SB SOLOMON ISLANDS officially assigned
SC SEYCHELLES officially assigned
SD SUDAN officially assigned
SE SWEDEN officially assigned
SF Finland [D] indeterminately reserved
SG SINGAPORE officially assigned
SH SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA officially assigned
SI SLOVENIA officially assigned
SJ SVALBARD AND JAN MAYEN officially assigned
SK SLOVAKIA officially assigned
SL SIERRA LEONE officially assigned
SM SAN MARINO officially assigned
SN SENEGAL officially assigned
SO SOMALIA officially assigned
SR SURINAME officially assigned
SS SOUTH SUDAN officially assigned
ST SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE officially assigned
SU USSR Requested by Foundation of Internet Development (FID) exceptionally reserved
SV EL SALVADOR officially assigned
SX SINT MAARTEN (DUTCH PART) The island of Saint Martin is divided into the French northern part and the Dutch southern part officially assigned
SY SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC officially assigned
SZ SWAZILAND officially assigned
TA Tristan da Cunha [B] Requested by Universal Postal Union (UPU) exceptionally reserved
TC TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS officially assigned
TD CHAD officially assigned
TF FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES officially assigned
TG TOGO officially assigned
TH THAILAND officially assigned
TJ TAJIKISTAN officially assigned
TK TOKELAU officially assigned
TL TIMOR-LESTE officially assigned
TM TURKMENISTAN officially assigned
TN TUNISIA officially assigned
TO TONGA officially assigned
TP East Timor 2002-05 to 2052-05 transitionally reserved
TR TURKEY officially assigned
TT TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO officially assigned
TV TUVALU officially assigned
TW TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA officially assigned
TZ TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
UA UKRAINE officially assigned
UG UGANDA officially assigned
UK United Kingdom Requested by United Kingdom exceptionally reserved
UM UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS officially assigned
US UNITED STATES officially assigned
UY URUGUAY officially assigned
UZ UZBEKISTAN officially assigned
VA HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY STATE) officially assigned
VC SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES officially assigned
VE VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
VG VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH officially assigned
VI VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S. officially assigned
VN VIET NAM officially assigned
VU VANUATU officially assigned
WF WALLIS AND FUTUNA officially assigned
WG Grenada [D] indeterminately reserved
WL Saint Lucia [D] indeterminately reserved
WO World Intellectual Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
WS SAMOA officially assigned
WV Saint Vincent [D] indeterminately reserved
XA user-assigned
XB user-assigned
XC user-assigned
XD user-assigned
XE user-assigned
XF user-assigned
XG user-assigned
XH user-assigned
XI user-assigned
XJ user-assigned
XK user-assigned
XL user-assigned
XM user-assigned
XN user-assigned
XO user-assigned
XP user-assigned
XQ user-assigned
XR user-assigned
XS user-assigned
XT user-assigned
XU user-assigned
XV user-assigned
XW user-assigned
XX user-assigned
XY user-assigned
XZ user-assigned
YE YEMEN officially assigned
YT MAYOTTE officially assigned
YU Yugoslavia 2003-07 to 2053-07 transitionally reserved
YV Venezuela [D] indeterminately reserved
ZA SOUTH AFRICA officially assigned
ZM ZAMBIA officially assigned
ZR Zaire 1997-07 to 2047-07 transitionally reserved
ZW ZIMBABWE officially assigned
ZZ user-assigned

Notes:

 

[A]  The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) uses ten alpha-2 code elements for particular purposes  in its Standard ST.3 which are not assigned in ISO 3166-1. The ISO 3166/MA will not use these alpha-2  code elements for assignment in ISO 3166 at the present stage.

[B]  Official country names are given in CAPITAL LETTERS. Other names are given in normal orthography i.e  including lower case letters.

[C]  The list of ISO 3166-1 reserved code elements is only available in English, hence the lack of French  names for entries which are not officially included in ISO 3166-1.

[D] Here the following pieces of information can  be given:

  • Acronym of organization or name of country  on whose behalf a reservation was made
  • Date of reservation (for transitional reservations)
  • Abbreviation of source document for reserved code element
  • Explanatory text

Windows7下VS2008破解试用版到正式版的方法

2011年2月12日
作者:enet

对于在win7下的vs2008破解,和在xp内核系统下的破解是不同的.

传统的破解方式:

一、先安装试用版,然后在“添加或删除程序”里找到VS2008,点“更改/删除”就会看到一个输入序列号的地方,把序列号输进去,点“升级”按钮即 可,Team Suite和Professional通用。

二、把ISO中的Setup/setup.sdb文件中的[Product Key],由“T2CRQGDKBVW7KJR8C6CKXMW3D”修改为“PYHYPWXB3BB2CCMV9DX9VDY8T”, 之后正常安装即可

但在win7和win2008R2中,第一种方法是行不通的,因为win7系统中微软遮蔽了序列号输入窗口.

显示输入序列号的地方被遮蔽了。

如果安装之后需要破解,需要采用以下的方法:

一、首先下载下面的补丁程序

win7,win2008R2系统Vs2008补丁

补丁地址:http://goo.gl/O05C7

二、运行到维护模式下,运行补丁程序,点击打补丁,即可看到维护模式下的出现序列号输入框,数据我下面提供的序列号即可。

以下是收集的序列号:

1.Visual Studio 2008 Professional Edition:    XMQ2Y-4T3V6-XJ48Y-D3K2V-6C4WT

2.Visual Studio 2008 Team Test Load Agent:    WPX3J-BXC3W-BPYWP-PJ8CM-F7M8T

3.Visual Studio 2008 Team System:         PYHYP-WXB3B-B2CCM-V9DX9-VDY8T

4.Visual Studio 2008 Team Foundation Server:   WPDW8-M962C-VJX9M-HQB4Q-JVTDM

这是写补丁作者原文:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_57b5da120100gk7l.html

三 尝试直接修改注册表中的序列号, 不过我这里没有成功, 但还是把注册表的地址发出来, 方便大家研究.

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\VisualStudio\9.0\Registration]

这个是注册表里放序列号的,试试改一下PIDKEY的值.里面pidkey有两个,都要改的, 不用加”-”.

五种拍摄相机模式解析

  随着越来越多的中高端消费级数码相机数码相机加入了全手动功能,单反也日益的普及到了老百姓的日常生活之中,更多的网友不愿意只满足于按下快门那么简单。除了平时的拍照以外,更多的人想拍出与众不同,更有意境的照片效果。当我们具备了一定的摄影知识之后,我们想拍出出色的照片将不会被相机自动设置的参数所局限,相机将真正的成为我们要表达的情感记录工具。


图为:相机模式拨盘说明 ·全自动操作【AUTO】
  全自动模式下,相机会根据所处的光亮环境,自动来设置相机各种参数来获得最佳的曝光度和效果,这点对于刚接触数码相机的用户来说非常有用。相机用户只需要把对焦点(或多对焦点的其中一点)对准被摄物体,半按下快门按钮,当听到合焦声(一般为清脆的嘀嘀声)或者在取景器上看见合焦提示成功后,完全按下快门键即可完成拍摄。
图为:采用全自动模式拍摄(下载可看源片数据)   采用全自动拍摄模式时在昏暗情况下有可能相机会自动弹起闪光灯来进行补光。因为成像的好坏是由相机通过计算来得到的。我们就不过多的进行说明了。此功能完全可以满足光亮充足下的拍摄需求。
·程序自动曝光【P】
  相机采用自动设置快门和光圈的参数,称为程序自动曝光。自动曝光在全自动曝光的基础上来进行操作,相机使用者可以自己限定ISO值、白平衡、测光模式等等参数,当我们想在昏暗环境下拍摄低ISO值来保证画面质量,但对摄影不是很了解的情况下,P档给予了我们更多的拍摄自由。但这仅仅是往中端摄影爱好者过度的一个阶段,想要拍出独具匠心、自己所想要的影像。我们还得继续往深处钻研。
图为:采用程序自动曝光模式拍摄(下载可看源片数据)   相信看完以上两档入门级拍摄讲解以后,各位完全可以总结为两条:全自动操作模式只需要我们把对焦点对在被摄物体上即可(有些机型甚至连这步都省了)。程序自动曝光模式则需要我们把规定的参数(如:ISO感光度、白平衡、测光模式、驱动模式等等)设置成想要的数值,光圈、快门方面则完全由相机自身来控制。
  它们的区别在于,当使用全自动模式是,相机会自动设置对焦模式、驱动模式、内置闪光灯、感光度等等,当使用程序时,相机只自动设置光圈和快门数值,其它参数消费者可以自行更改。
·光圈优先【A】
  当我们对以上两种模式,或者说是对程序自动曝光【P】了解差不多了,我们就可以按照自己的喜好来往更加专业的拍摄方向发展了。
  光圈优先是大多数影友们用的最多的一种拍摄模式。首先,光圈的大小直接影响的就是景深的深浅,光圈越大(数值越小,例如F2.8),景深越浅,背景虚化越严重;光圈越小(数值越大,例如F22),景深越深,背景越清晰。请看我们下面的对比图效果。

图为:奥林巴斯ZUIKO DIGITAL ED300mm1:2.8镜头光圈焦外对比  各位可以明显的看出各档光圈下焦外景深随着光圈的缩小也变得越来越明显。相信眼细的网友还从中看到了一个问题,就是当光圈在F5.6左右的时候成像最锐利,效果最好。这就是我们即将介绍的光圈另一个作用——成像的锐利度。
图为:佳能G10长焦端分辨率测试   想改变镜头成像的锐利度通常最简单的办法就是来改变光圈的大小,大多数镜头的光圈在F5.6左右时可以达到最好的成像效果,整体保证是在镜头光圈的最中间值即可。
图为:松下LX3各档光圈实拍效果截图   此外,光圈的大小直接影响的就是快门的速度,通常人们往往做的就是在昏暗的环境下把光圈值调到最大,让光线投进镜头的量更多,使快门速度更快以达到防止画面手抖所带来的模糊感。当然光圈的最大值越大,价格也就越贵。且恒定光圈(变焦时光圈恒定)要比非恒定光圈也要贵出不少。这就要看消费者的经济承受能力了。
·快门优先【S】(佳能机型一般为【Tv】)
  在此模式之中,消费者可以自动设置快门速度值来进行自己所需要的拍摄。高速的快门可以凝固瞬间动作或者移动的主题。而较低的快门速度可以让运动中的物体产生模糊效果,增加动感。
图为:提高快门速度跟拍凝固运动瞬间
图为:降低快门速度让水花产生模糊增加动感   通常在拍摄运动状态下一般都要提高快门速度,往往还要配和ISO感光度的提升来进行拍摄。在拍摄喷泉、瀑布等场景时,往往降低快门速度进行拍照可以让影像显得更加有意境,但往往需要配合中灰滤镜来进行拍摄,有些相机还自带滤镜效果(如佳能G10)。一般不是特殊情况下此模式运用的还是很少的。
·全手动操作【M
  相信很多新手在全手动模式中拍出来的照片要不就是全黑的,要不就是全白的。在全手动模式中,影友可以根据自己所需要的光圈值和快门速度来进行拍摄,是否曝光正确可以参考取景器或者液晶显示品上的标准曝光量指示标尺,当曝光量标志在标尺的中心位置时则曝光正好。

图为:B门下拍摄的星空轨迹   当熟悉光圈、快门优先之后,相信很多消费者在比较极端的情况下,过度亮和过度暗,都会遇到一个瓶颈。相机的光圈、快门方面都有一个最大值(例如最长时间为30秒的曝光),当超过此值时相机的自动拍摄就无能为力了,例如上图的星空轨迹照片,这时我们就要采用B门来进行长达6个小时左右的拍摄,才可以达到以上效果。
图为:B门下拍摄光涂鸦效果   值得一提的是,相机的全手动不仅让我们可以拍出计划内的照片效果,还可以达到更喜剧的图片内容。光涂鸦则是一个很成功的例子,相机在快门开启状态用明亮的物体(如手电筒)在空中画出轨迹,则拍完成功之后画面上就能显示出刚才的轨迹路线。
  以上介绍的五种拍摄模式,又称之为创意拍摄区域,在数码单反类相机中都具备,而高端消费级相机中全具备的并不是很多,有些相机虽然自带M档,但快门只有两档,操作起来形同虚设。因为篇幅的关系我们并没有详细的说明每档模式,只是大概介绍了一下。 ]]>