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ISO 3166-1 国家代码表

  • Standards
  • ISO 3166 – Country codes
  • ISO 3166-1 decoding table

ISO 3166-1 decoding table

Last updated:  2012-08-02

 

This decoding table provides the user of ISO 3166-1 with an easy access to the definition  of all 676 code elements available in the alpha-2 code of ISO’s country code standard.

The  content of this document is taken from two sources: The official code list of ISO 3166-1 and the list  of reserved ISO 3166-1 code elements which contains information on code allocations which are not officially  part of ISO 3166-1 (see “Reserved code elements”). The reserved code elements  have different statuses with regard to restrictions on use within ISO’s country code system. Some may  be used – others must not be used.

These statuses – and their approximate meanings  for the user of ISO 3166-1 – are described and colour-coded in Table 1. Tables 2 gives a colour coded,  clickable matrix of all ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code elements which is linked to Table 3 which gives the  definition of the code element.

For more detailed information please refer  to the section on “Reserved code elements” on our Website.

Contact the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency

The  ISO 3166/MA  should be contacted through its secretariat. Please use the following address:

ISO  3166 Maintenance Agency c/o International Organization for Standardization Case  postale 56 CH-1211 Genève 20

Telephone: +41 22 749 02 22 Telefax:  +41 22 749 01 55 E-mail: mbinfo@iso.org Web: www.iso.org/iso/country_codes

 

Color
Status of code element What it means
Officially assigned code element Code element may be used without restriction
User-assigned code element Code element may be used without restriction
Exceptionally reserved code element Code element may be used but restrictions may apply
Transitionally reserved code element Code element deleted from ISO 3166-1; stop using ASAP
Indeterminately reserved code element Code element must not be used in ISO 3166-1
Code elements not used at present stage [A] Code element must not be used in ISO 3166-1
Un-assigned code elements Code element free for assignment (by ISO 3166/MA only!)
AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ
BA BB BC BD BE BF BG BH BI BJ BK BL BM BN BO BP BQ BR BS BT BU BV BW BX BY BZ
CA CB CC CE CD CF CG CH CI CJ CK CL CM CN CO CP CQ CR CS CT CU CV CW CX CY CZ
DA DB DC DD DE DF DG DH DI DJ DK DL DM DN DO DP DQ DR DS DT DU DV DW DX DY DZ
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
FA FB FC FD FE FF FG FH FI FJ FK FL FM FN FO FP FQ FR FS FT FU FV FW FX FY FZ
GA GB GC GD GE GF GG GH GI GJ GK GL GM GN GO GP GQ GR GS GT GU GV GW GX GY GZ
HA HB HC HD HE HF HG HH HI HJ HK HL HM HN HO HP HQ HR HS HT HU HV HW HX HY HZ
IA IB IC ID IE IF IG IH II IJ IK IL IM IN IO IP IQ IR IS IT IU IV IW IX IY IZ
JA JB JC JD JE JF JG JH JI JJ JK JL JM JN JO JP JQ JR JS JT JU JV JW JX JY JZ
KA KB KC KD KE KF KG KH KI KJ KK KL KM KN KO KP KQ KR KS KT KU KV KW KX KY KZ
LA LB LC LD LE LF LG LH LI LJ LK LL LM LN LO LP LQ LR LS LT LU LV LW LX LY LZ
MA MB MC MD ME MF MG MH MI MJ MK ML MM MN MO MP MQ MR MS MT MU MV MW MX MY MZ
NA NB NC ND NE NF NG NH NI NJ NK NL NM NN NO NP NQ NR NS NT NU NV NW NX NY NZ
OA OB OC OD OE OF OG OH OI OJ OK OL OM ON OO OP OQ OR OS OT OU OV OW OX OY OZ
PA PB PC PD PE PF PG PH PI PJ PK PL PM PN PO PP PQ PR PS PT PU PV PW PX PY PZ
QA QB QC QD QE QF QG QH QI QJ QK QL QM QN QO QP QQ QR QS QT QU QV QW QX QY QZ
RA RB RC RD RE RF RG RH RI RJ RK RL RM RN RO RP RQ RR RS RT RU RV RW RX RY RZ
SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SI SJ SK SL SM SN SO SP SQ SR SS ST SU SV SW SX SY SZ
TA TB TC TD TE TF TG TH TI TJ TK TL TM TN TO TP TQ TR TS TT TU TV TW TX TY TZ
UA UB UC UD UE UF UG UH UI UJ UK UL UM UN UO UP UQ UR US UT UU UV UW UX UY UZ
VA VB VC VD VE VF VG VH VI VJ VK VL VM VN VO VP VQ VR VS VT VU VV VW VX VY VZ
WA WB WC WD WE WF WG WH WI WJ WK WL WM WN WO WP WQ WR WS WT WU WV WW WX WY WZ
XA XB XC XD XE XF XG XH XI XJ XK XL XM XN XO XP XQ XR XS XT XU XV XW XX XY XZ
YA YB YC YD YE YF YG YH YI YJ YK YL YM YN YO YP YQ YR YS YT YU YV YW YX YY YZ
ZA ZB ZC ZD ZE ZF ZG ZH ZI ZJ ZK ZL ZM ZN ZO ZP ZQ ZR ZS ZT ZU ZV ZW ZX ZY ZZ
Code Name Remark Status
AA user-assigned
AC Ascension Island [B] Requested by Universal Postal Union (UPU) exceptionally reserved
AD ANDORRA officially assigned
AE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES officially assigned
AF AFGHANISTAN officially assigned
AG ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA officially assigned
AI ANGUILLA officially assigned
AL ALBANIA officially assigned
AM ARMENIA officially assigned
AN Netherlands Antilles 2011-12 to 2061-12 transitionally reserved
AO ANGOLA officially assigned
AP African Regional Industrial Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
AQ ANTARCTICA officially assigned
AR ARGENTINA officially assigned
AS AMERICAN SAMOA officially assigned
AT AUSTRIA officially assigned
AU AUSTRALIA officially assigned
AW ARUBA officially assigned
AX ÅLAND ISLANDS officially assigned
AZ AZERBAIJAN officially assigned
BA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA officially assigned
BB BARBADOS officially assigned
BD BANGLADESH officially assigned
BE BELGIUM officially assigned
BF BURKINA FASO officially assigned
BG BULGARIA officially assigned
BH BAHRAIN officially assigned
BI BURUNDI officially assigned
BJ BENIN officially assigned
BL SAINT BARTHÉLEMY officially assigned
BM BERMUDA officially assigned
BN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM officially assigned
BO BOLIVIA, PLURINATIONAL STATE OF officially assigned
BQ BONAIRE, SINT EUSTATIUS AND SABA officially assigned
BR BRAZIL officially assigned
BS BAHAMAS officially assigned
BT BHUTAN officially assigned
BU Burma 1989-12 to 2039-12 transitionally reserved
BV BOUVET ISLAND officially assigned
BW BOTSWANA officially assigned
BX Benelux Trademarks and Designs Office [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
BY BELARUS officially assigned
BZ BELIZE officially assigned
CA CANADA officially assigned
CC COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS officially assigned
CD CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE officially assigned
CF CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
CG CONGO officially assigned
CH SWITZERLAND officially assigned
CI CÔTE D’IVOIRE officially assigned
CK COOK ISLANDS officially assigned
CL CHILE officially assigned
CM CAMEROON officially assigned
CN CHINA officially assigned
CO COLOMBIA officially assigned
CP Clipperton Island [C] Requested by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) exceptionally reserved
CR COSTA RICA officially assigned
CS SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO 2006-09 to 2056-09 transitionally reserved
CU CUBA officially assigned
CV CAPE VERDE officially assigned
CW CURAÇAO officially assigned
CX CHRISTMAS ISLAND officially assigned
CY CYPRUS officially assigned
CZ CZECH REPUBLIC officially assigned
DE GERMANY officially assigned
DG Diego Garcia [C] Requested by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) exceptionally reserved
DJ DJIBOUTI officially assigned
DK DENMARK officially assigned
DM DOMINICA officially assigned
DO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
DY Benin [D] Requested by Secretary-General of UN for Road Traffic Conventions R49 and R68 indeterminately reserved
DZ ALGERIA officially assigned
EA Ceuta, Melilla [E] Requested by World Customs Organization (WCO) exceptionally reserved
EC ECUADOR officially assigned
EE ESTONIA officially assigned
EF Union of Countries under the European Community Patent Convention [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EG EGYPT officially assigned
EH WESTERN SAHARA officially assigned
EM European Trademark Office [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EP European Patent Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
ER ERITREA officially assigned
ES SPAIN officially assigned
ET ETHIOPIA officially assigned
EU European Union Requested by ISO 4217/MA (March 1998) for ISO 6166 “Securities – International securities identification numbering system (ISIN)”. In August 1999, extension of scope to any application needing to represent the name European Union. exceptionally reserved
EV Eurasian Patent Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
EW Estonia [D] indeterminately reserved
FI FINLAND officially assigned
FJ FIJI officially assigned
FK FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS) officially assigned
FL Liechtenstein [D] indeterminately reserved
FM MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF officially assigned
FO FAROE ISLANDS officially assigned
FR FRANCE officially assigned
FX France, Metropolitan Requested by France exceptionally reserved
GA GABON officially assigned
GB UNITED KINGDOM officially assigned
GC Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
GD GRENADA officially assigned
GE GEORGIA officially assigned
GF FRENCH GUIANA officially assigned
GG GUERNSEY officially assigned
GH GHANA officially assigned
GI GIBRALTAR officially assigned
GL GREENLAND officially assigned
GM GAMBIA officially assigned
GN GUINEA officially assigned
GP GUADELOUPE officially assigned
GQ EQUATORIAL GUINEA officially assigned
GR GREECE officially assigned
GS SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS officially assigned
GT GUATEMALA officially assigned
GU GUAM officially assigned
GW GUINEA-BISSAU officially assigned
GY GUYANA officially assigned
HK HONG KONG officially assigned
HM HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS officially assigned
HN HONDURAS officially assigned
HR CROATIA officially assigned
HT HAITI officially assigned
HU HUNGARY officially assigned
IB International Bureau of WIPO [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
IC Canary Islands [E] Requested by World Customs Organization (WCO) exceptionally reserved
ID INDONESIA officially assigned
IE IRELAND officially assigned
IL ISRAEL officially assigned
IM ISLE OF MAN officially assigned
IN INDIA officially assigned
IO BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY officially assigned
IQ IRAQ officially assigned
IR IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
IS ICELAND officially assigned
IT ITALY officially assigned
JA Jamaica [F] Requested by Secretary-General of UN for Road Traffic Conventions indeterminately reserved
JE JERSEY officially assigned
JM JAMAICA officially assigned
JO JORDAN officially assigned
JP JAPAN officially assigned
KE KENYA officially assigned
KG KYRGYZSTAN officially assigned
KH CAMBODIA officially assigned
KI KIRIBATI officially assigned
KM COMOROS officially assigned
KN SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS officially assigned
KP KOREA, DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
KR KOREA, REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
KW KUWAIT officially assigned
KY CAYMAN ISLANDS officially assigned
KZ KAZAKHSTAN officially assigned
LA LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC officially assigned
LB LEBANON officially assigned
LC SAINT LUCIA officially assigned
LF Libya Fezzan [D] indeterminately reserved
LI LIECHTENSTEIN officially assigned
LK SRI LANKA officially assigned
LR LIBERIA officially assigned
LS LESOTHO officially assigned
LT LITHUANIA officially assigned
LU LUXEMBOURG officially assigned
LV LATVIA officially assigned
LY LIBYA officially assigned
MA MOROCCO officially assigned
MC MONACO officially assigned
MD MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
ME MONTENEGRO officially assigned
MF SAINT MARTIN (FRENCH PART) officially assigned
MG MADAGASCAR officially assigned
MH MARSHALL ISLANDS officially assigned
MK MACEDONIA, THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
ML MALI officially assigned
MM MYANMAR officially assigned
MN MONGOLIA officially assigned
MO MACAO officially assigned
MP NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS officially assigned
MQ MARTINIQUE officially assigned
MR MAURITANIA officially assigned
MS MONTSERRAT officially assigned
MT MALTA officially assigned
MU MAURITIUS officially assigned
MV MALDIVES officially assigned
MW MALAWI officially assigned
MX MEXICO officially assigned
MY MALAYSIA officially assigned
MZ MOZAMBIQUE officially assigned
NA NAMIBIA officially assigned
NC NEW CALEDONIA officially assigned
NE NIGER officially assigned
NF NORFOLK ISLAND officially assigned
NG NIGERIA officially assigned
NI NICARAGUA officially assigned
NL NETHERLANDS Includes: the islands Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba officially assigned
NO NORWAY officially assigned
NP NEPAL officially assigned
NR NAURU officially assigned
NT Neutral Zone 1993-07 to 2043-07 transitionally reserved
NU NIUE officially assigned
NZ NEW ZEALAND officially assigned
OA African Intellectual Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
OM OMAN officially assigned
PA PANAMA officially assigned
PE PERU officially assigned
PF FRENCH POLYNESIA officially assigned
PG PAPUA NEW GUINEA officially assigned
PH PHILIPPINES officially assigned
PI Philippines [F] indeterminately reserved
PK PAKISTAN officially assigned
PL POLAND officially assigned
PM SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON officially assigned
PN PITCAIRN officially assigned
PR PUERTO RICO officially assigned
PS PALESTINIAN TERRITORY, OCCUPIED officially assigned
PT PORTUGAL officially assigned
PW PALAU officially assigned
PY PARAGUAY officially assigned
QA QATAR officially assigned
QM user-assigned
QN user-assigned
QO user-assigned
QP user-assigned
QQ user-assigned
QR user-assigned
QS user-assigned
QT user-assigned
QU user-assigned
QV user-assigned
QW user-assigned
QX user-assigned
QY user-assigned
QZ user-assigned
RA Argentina [F] indeterminately reserved
RB Bolivia [cf. Botswana: identical code element] [D] indeterminately reserved
RC China [F] indeterminately reserved
RE RÉUNION officially assigned
RH Haiti [D] indeterminately reserved
RI Indonesia [F] indeterminately reserved
RL Lebanon [F] indeterminately reserved
RM Madagascar [F] indeterminately reserved
RN Niger [G] indeterminately reserved
RO ROMANIA officially assigned
RP Philippines [G] indeterminately reserved
RS SERBIA officially assigned
RU RUSSIAN FEDERATION officially assigned
RW RWANDA officially assigned
SA SAUDI ARABIA officially assigned
SB SOLOMON ISLANDS officially assigned
SC SEYCHELLES officially assigned
SD SUDAN officially assigned
SE SWEDEN officially assigned
SF Finland [D] indeterminately reserved
SG SINGAPORE officially assigned
SH SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA officially assigned
SI SLOVENIA officially assigned
SJ SVALBARD AND JAN MAYEN officially assigned
SK SLOVAKIA officially assigned
SL SIERRA LEONE officially assigned
SM SAN MARINO officially assigned
SN SENEGAL officially assigned
SO SOMALIA officially assigned
SR SURINAME officially assigned
SS SOUTH SUDAN officially assigned
ST SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE officially assigned
SU USSR Requested by Foundation of Internet Development (FID) exceptionally reserved
SV EL SALVADOR officially assigned
SX SINT MAARTEN (DUTCH PART) The island of Saint Martin is divided into the French northern part and the Dutch southern part officially assigned
SY SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC officially assigned
SZ SWAZILAND officially assigned
TA Tristan da Cunha [B] Requested by Universal Postal Union (UPU) exceptionally reserved
TC TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS officially assigned
TD CHAD officially assigned
TF FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES officially assigned
TG TOGO officially assigned
TH THAILAND officially assigned
TJ TAJIKISTAN officially assigned
TK TOKELAU officially assigned
TL TIMOR-LESTE officially assigned
TM TURKMENISTAN officially assigned
TN TUNISIA officially assigned
TO TONGA officially assigned
TP East Timor 2002-05 to 2052-05 transitionally reserved
TR TURKEY officially assigned
TT TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO officially assigned
TV TUVALU officially assigned
TW TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA officially assigned
TZ TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF officially assigned
UA UKRAINE officially assigned
UG UGANDA officially assigned
UK United Kingdom Requested by United Kingdom exceptionally reserved
UM UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS officially assigned
US UNITED STATES officially assigned
UY URUGUAY officially assigned
UZ UZBEKISTAN officially assigned
VA HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY STATE) officially assigned
VC SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES officially assigned
VE VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC officially assigned
VG VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH officially assigned
VI VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S. officially assigned
VN VIET NAM officially assigned
VU VANUATU officially assigned
WF WALLIS AND FUTUNA officially assigned
WG Grenada [D] indeterminately reserved
WL Saint Lucia [D] indeterminately reserved
WO World Intellectual Property Organization [A] Requested by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for use in Standard ST.3 indeterminately reserved
WS SAMOA officially assigned
WV Saint Vincent [D] indeterminately reserved
XA user-assigned
XB user-assigned
XC user-assigned
XD user-assigned
XE user-assigned
XF user-assigned
XG user-assigned
XH user-assigned
XI user-assigned
XJ user-assigned
XK user-assigned
XL user-assigned
XM user-assigned
XN user-assigned
XO user-assigned
XP user-assigned
XQ user-assigned
XR user-assigned
XS user-assigned
XT user-assigned
XU user-assigned
XV user-assigned
XW user-assigned
XX user-assigned
XY user-assigned
XZ user-assigned
YE YEMEN officially assigned
YT MAYOTTE officially assigned
YU Yugoslavia 2003-07 to 2053-07 transitionally reserved
YV Venezuela [D] indeterminately reserved
ZA SOUTH AFRICA officially assigned
ZM ZAMBIA officially assigned
ZR Zaire 1997-07 to 2047-07 transitionally reserved
ZW ZIMBABWE officially assigned
ZZ user-assigned

Notes:

 

[A]  The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) uses ten alpha-2 code elements for particular purposes  in its Standard ST.3 which are not assigned in ISO 3166-1. The ISO 3166/MA will not use these alpha-2  code elements for assignment in ISO 3166 at the present stage.

[B]  Official country names are given in CAPITAL LETTERS. Other names are given in normal orthography i.e  including lower case letters.

[C]  The list of ISO 3166-1 reserved code elements is only available in English, hence the lack of French  names for entries which are not officially included in ISO 3166-1.

[D] Here the following pieces of information can  be given:

  • Acronym of organization or name of country  on whose behalf a reservation was made
  • Date of reservation (for transitional reservations)
  • Abbreviation of source document for reserved code element
  • Explanatory text

我童年的思维


总有人说我不正常,久了我也不说什么了! 也许你和我一样相信”谎言说一千遍也会变成真理”这句话.
话说多了烦! 有话不说的人让人急,感觉没有信任感. 也可能是因为还不够了解. 所以我还是写些好,写给想要了解我,即将了解我或者还不够了解我的人. 夜深时总想些什么.
过去的,现在的; 现实的,飘渺的; 将要发生的和不会实现的.
而且每次思路是那样的清晰,流畅. 可常常想过很多很多,睡去醒来,依然淡忘了一切.
我总想把它记下来. 可每每拿上纸笔,敲击键盘,脑中又空无一片.
所以没有人知道我想过的是什么.连我自己也不知道. 也许正是这样,在满脑子都是想法的时候,我们都很想找个人与她(他)分享这些信息.
也许是为了做个数据备份.也许是IP广播或Ping一下,希望收到一个回应信号.
可尝试过这种做法,你会觉得效果并不是很好.
像系统一样,可能协议不匹配,系统不兼容,数据包丢失,最怕的是发了收不到回应,你连发送成功与否都不明了.
也许她装了防火墙,把你过滤了;或许她的朋友,家人给她加装了杀毒,发现你就干死;更或许她的服务已占用99%的cpu,跟本无法再相应你的信号.再者她(他)可能压根不喜欢你这种用开放源代码的Linux或UNIX,长得丑,操作不便,关键你这玩意不要钱的,没一点保障.毕竟人家XP和Vista是大厂的出的,有后台技术支持! 打小,父母给我的参数和我自己的存档显示,我小时候话很少,且很老实,不爱出去玩.
不出去也就算了,一年作业就做到9,10点. 而且总坐着目光呆滞的发愣,时不时一阵微笑!
终于有第一天,被赶出家门,非让我出去玩,结果我哭着跑出去玩了.
注意,半个小时后,我和一个小伙在胡同开始PK,围观人群死多,知道我打不过也不帮忙!
其中一个湖南人还说:真好玩. 后来那家伙去了湖南卫视,策划了臭名昭著的<超级男生>.
PK失利后,在家修养了一段,刚重新找回自我,一天又被赶出去玩.
注意,又是半个小后,我满脸是血,很自豪的被一个小女孩送回家中.我没哭,倒是心里得意的想:看,还敢放我出去?
家人问,我说撞得,爸妈还有点不信! 至今我一直在想,他们怀疑我是被小女孩拿砖拍的!
不过我没解释,有点创意好不好,我到宁可他们想,是我一看表,半个小时了,就找个墙猛撞,没出血,再找块砖猛拍!
其实当时送我回家的小女孩是很喜欢我的,这是其他小孩告诉我的,可我不信! 因为我听见她送我进屋后对外面小孩说:他真衰(suǐ). 她太早熟了! 我快20年以后才知道suǐ啥意思! 更重要的是小时候我还出现《记忆裂痕》和《蝴蝶效应》中的记忆空白和丢失的现象.
所以推荐想了解我的人看看这些片子,你们会有启示.
幼儿园时,一次加餐费,我爸说送我到园门口,把钱包好放我小兜里了! 让我一进去,就交给老师.
结果我一进去老师问:加餐费带来了吗? 我大声说:家人没给我! 结果我很多天没吃上苹果,好像还有其他好吃的!
后来老师说家人,家人说老师. 我当时还认为她们都不爱我,这样虐待祖国的花朵! 后来还是补交了一份!
对,还有点要说,幼儿园时,由于妈上班远,爸上班忙,我都是全园最后一个被接回家的.后来长大爸也多次说这事.
记得那时的场景经常是阿姨(幼儿园老师)牵着我手,夕阳下站在门口等家人. 要麽就是把我一个人关在屋里玩积木,突然阿姨冲进来说:你爸终于来了! 你可以回家了! 感觉有种被保释的感觉! 我打小都记性不好.
有次小学刚上一年级,那时应该是爸妈第2次离婚时,我跟着爸.
一个周末,爸要上班,把我送到车站,给我两毛钱,让我坐公交(那是只有6路)去奶奶家.
走时不放心,特意把我交给两个等车的女兵,让她们照顾我到下车,说给的我有车钱.
爸走后,她们对我挺好的.然后我就什么什么都不知道了.
后面场景就直接公交到站了,车开走后看见站住个吃苹果类小孩. 从兜里还得意的掏出两毛钱,那就是我.
晚上俺爹吵我了! 说:啊! 人家带你坐车,不给钱,还吃人家苹果!? 我是真不记得了,肯定那趟车没售票员,不然我这么好个孩杂会不给钱类! 从小我都反对随大流! 很早都有自己不同的看法!
同样挺小的,刚上小学时吧,已经不再去女澡堂洗澡了.
一次晚上吃完饭,发现胡同好几个小孩都趴墙头的一块玻璃上看,还窃窃私语说啥:挺大,挺白?我说:啥? 他们说:女澡堂!
我一把爬上去. 挤半天没挤进去. 旁边还有个窗户,我看没人,心想我自己看,不给恁挤!
里面蒸汽濛濛,玻璃上还都是水珠,看半天看不清!

Windows Update 自动更新服务同步的镜像站点

 

Windows Update自动更新(SUS/软件更新服务)均是与微软的Windows Update自动更新服务同步的镜像站点.

这些Windows Update自动更新均是与微软Windows Update自动更新服务同步的镜像站点,在国内升级的话连接这些站点速度会比微软官方网站快得多。升级方法与效果与连接微软升级服务器完全相同.

如果你的XP,Win2003不能在线升级,可以到网上去查查,搜索一下,听说有了解决不能升级的办法,只需要简单修改一下注册表就行了. 但我还没有找到 ^_^

一下是国内的一些WindowsUpdate服务器
(不一定都能使用,有一些服务器做了限制,只有本地用户才可以)

上海外国语大学WindowsUpdate服务器
http://windowsupdate.shisu.edu.cn/

中原工学院WindowsUpdateService-自动更新服务SUS
http://windowsupdate.zzti.edu.cn

华中科技大学自动更新(Windows Update)服务
http://windowsupdate.hust.edu.cn/

哈尔滨工业大学WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.hit.edu.cn/

西安交通大学软件学院WindowsUpdate服务器
http://202.117.21.253/

厦门大学网络中心WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.xmu.edu.cn

上海交通大学WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.sjtu.edu.cn

上海大学计算中心WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.ccshu.net/windows/

网协本地WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://www.nxis.org.cn/

天津外国语学院信息网络中心WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.tjfsu.edu.cn/

河北工业大学软件学院WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://windowsupdate.scse.hebut.edu.cn/

华南农业大学WindowsUpdate自动更新服务
http://sus.scau.edu.cn/

四川大学WindowsUpdate服务器
http://windowsupdate.scu.edu.cn/

软件版本号说明

软件版本号说明

 

alphal 内部测试版

beta 外部测试版

demo 演示版

Enhance 增强版或者加强版 属于正式版

Free 自由版

Full version 完全版 属于正式版

shareware 共享版

Release 发行版 有时间限制

Upgrade 升级版

Retail 零售版

Cardware 属共享软件的一种,只要给作者回复一封电邮或明信片即可。
(有的作者并由此提供注册码  等),目前这种形式已不多见。

Plus 属增强版,不过这种大部分是在程序界面及多媒体功能上增强。

Preview 预览版

Corporation & Enterprise 企业版

Standard 标准版

Mini 迷你版也叫精简版只有最基本的功能

Premium — 贵价版

Professional — 专业版

Express — 特别版

Deluxe — 豪华版

Regged — 已注册版

CN — 简体中文版

CHT — 繁体中文版

EN — 英文版

Multilanguage — 多语言版
Rip 是指从原版文件(一般是指光盘或光盘镜像文件)直接将有用的内容(核心内容)分离出来,剔除无用的文档,例如PDF说明文件啊,视频演示啊之类的东西,也 可以算做是精简版吧…但主要内容功能是一点也不能缺少的!另:DVDrip是指将视频和音频直接从DVD光盘里以文件方式分离出来。

trail 试用版(含有某些限制,如时间、功能,注册后也有可能变为正式版)

RC 版。是 Release Candidate 的缩写,意思是发布倒计时,该版本已经完成全部功能并清除大部分的BUG。到了这个阶段只会除BUG,不会对软件做任何大的更改。

RTM 版。这基本就是最终的版本,英文是 Release To Manufactur,意思是发布到生产商。

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

You may license products through an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM).
These products, such as Windows operating systems, come installed when you purchase a new computer.

OEM软件是给电脑生产厂的版本,无需多说。

Full Packaged Product (FPP)–Retail

Physical, shrink-wrapped boxes of licensed product that can be purchased in a local retail store or any local software retailer.

FPP就是零售版(盒装软件),这种产品的光盘的卷标都带有”FPP”字样,比如英文WXP Pro的FPP版本的光盘卷标就是WXPFPP_EN,其中WX表示是Windows XP,P是Professional(H是Home),FPP表明是零售版本,EN是表明是英语。获得途径除了在商店购买之外,某些MSDN用户也可以得 到。

Volume Licensing for Organizations (VLO)

You may enjoy potentially significant savings by acquiring multiple product licenses. Depending on the size and type of your organization.

团体批量许可证(大量采购授权合约),这是为团体购买而制定的一种优惠方式。这种产品的光盘的卷标都带有”VOL”字样,取”Volume”前 3个字母,以表明是批量,比如英文WXP Pro的VOL版本的光盘卷标就是WXPVOL_EN,其中WX表示是Windows XP,P是Professional(VOL没有Home版本),VOL表明是团体批量许可证版本,EN是表明是英语。获得途径主要是集团购买,某些 MSDN用户也可以得到。
这种版本根据购买数量等又细分为“开放式许可证”、“选择式许可证”、“企业协议”、“学术教育许可证”等以下5种版本

Open License
Select License
Enterprise Agreement
Enterprise Subscription Agreement
Academic Volume Licensing

由此可见,平时说的什么select/corp是许可证授权方式,他的出现是为了用若干种不同级别的优惠政策卖同一种软件,通过select /corp许可证授权方式得到的xxx的光盘都是VOL这一种、是并不是有很多种,只不过是相同的VOL光盘配以不同的许可证方式;而Volume Licensing (Product) Keys,即VLK,它所指的只是一个Key(密匙),仅仅是一个为证明产品合法化、以及安装所使用的Key,因为根据VOL计划规定,VOL产品是不需 要激活的!

或者说,VLK不是指一种版本,而是指这种版本在部署(deploy)过程中所需要的Key,而需要VLK这种Key的版本应该叫做VOL!只 不过在实际中,没有必要强调这种叫法、称呼的准确性,加之很多人的VOL版本光盘是通过企业的选择式许可证、企业协议等方式得到的等等原因,所以才会有很 多人叫他为“选择版”等等。
官方网站有一个表格,上面有一句话:“Different products require different Volume Licensing Keys (VLKs). Refer to the table below to make sure you have the correct VLK for your Microsoft product.”,我想这就很好的说明了VLK指的是Key而不是产品了。 很明显的,FPP需要激活,VOL不需要激活。
出处:PConline

Win2000/XP系统缺省进程

Win2000/XP系统缺省进程

在Windows 2000 和XP中,系统包含以下缺省进程:
Csrss.exe
Explorer.exe
Internat.exe
Lsass.exe
Mstask.exe
Smss.exe
Spoolsv.exe
Svchost.exe
Services.exe
System
System Idle Process
Taskmgr.exe
Winlogon.exe
Winmgmt.exe 下面列出更多的进程和它们的简要说明 进程名描述 smss.exeSessionManager
csrss.exe 子系统服务器进程
winlogon.exe管理用户登录
services.exe包含很多系统服务
lsass.exe 管理 IP 安全策略以及启动 ISAKMP/Oakley (IKE) 和 IP 安全驱动程序。
svchost.exe Windows 2000/XP 的文件保护系统
SPOOLSV.EXE 将文件加载到内存中以便迟后打印。)
explorer.exe资源管理器
internat.exe托盘区的拼音图标)
mstask.exe允许程序在指定时间运行。
regsvc.exe允许远程注册表操作。(系统服务)->remoteregister
winmgmt.exe 提供系统管理信息(系统服务)。
inetinfo.exemsftpsvc,w3svc,iisadmn
tlntsvr.exe tlnrsvr
tftpd.exe 实现 TFTP Internet 标准。该标准不要求用户名和密码。
termsrv.exe termservice
dns.exe 应答对域名系统(DNS)名称的查询和更新请求。
tcpsvcs.exe 提供在 PXE 可远程启动客户计算机上远程安装 Windows 2000 Professional 的能力。
ismserv.exe 允许在 Windows Advanced Server 站点间发送和接收消息。
ups.exe 管理连接到计算机的不间断电源(UPS)。
wins.exe为注册和解析 NetBIOS 型名称的 TCP/IP 客户提供 NetBIOS 名称服务。
llssrv.exe证书记录服务
ntfrs.exe 在多个服务器间维护文件目录内容的文件同步。
RsSub.exe 控制用来远程储存数据的媒体。
locator.exe 管理 RPC 名称服务数据库。
lserver.exe 注册客户端许可证。
dfssvc.exe管理分布于局域网或广域网的逻辑卷。
clipsrv.exe 支持“剪贴簿查看器”,以便可以从远程剪贴簿查阅剪贴页面。
msdtc.exe 并列事务,是分布于两个以上的数据库,消息队列,文件系统或其它事务保护护资源管理器。
faxsvc.exe帮助您发送和接收传真。
cisvc.exe 索引服务
dmadmin.exe 磁盘管理请求的系统管理服务。
mnmsrvc.exe 允许有权限的用户使用 NetMeeting 远程访问 Windows 桌面。
netdde.exe提供动态数据交换 (DDE) 的网络传输和安全特性。
smlogsvc.exe配置性能日志和警报。
rsvp.exe为依赖质量服务(QoS)的程序和控制应用程序提供网络信号和本地通信控制安装功功能。
RsEng.exe 协调用来储存不常用数据的服务和管理工具。
RsFsa.exe 管理远程储存的文件的操作。
grovel.exe扫描零备份存储(SIS)卷上的重复文件,并且将重复文件指向一个数据存储点,以节省磁盘空间(只对 NTFS 文件系统有用)。
SCardSvr.ex 对插入在计算机智能卡阅读器中的智能卡进行管理和访问控制。
snmp.exe包含代理程序可以监视网络设备的活动并且向网络控制台工作站汇报。
snmptrap.exe接收由本地或远程 SNMP 代理程序产生的陷阱(trap)消息,然后将消息传递到运行在这台计算机上 SNMP 管理程序。
UtilMan.exe 从一个窗口中启动和配置辅助工具。
msiexec.exe依据 .MSI 文件中包含的命令来安装、修复以及删除软件。
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